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Normal Vaginal Delivery - SlideShar

Upcoming SlideShare. Loading in Nursing Case study nsvd normal spontaneous delivery pinoy nurze. case study Muna Here. Vaginal Delivery - Chapter 27 of Williams Obstetrics 24th Edition Nian Baring. Normal Labor & Delivery Mahmoud Saeed. Normal Spontaneous Delivery lanzjesstin. Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery) HOST AGENT ENVIRONMENT Female Therapeutic Environment 27 years old Fertilization G1P1001 ( Union of sperm and ovum ) Zygote - Unicellular ( Intermingling of haploid paternal 23 X or Y and maternal 23 X chromosomes ) Series of Mitotic Cell division - Cleavage ( In 24 hours become two cell organism ) In. Normal Labor & Delivery. 1. Williams Obstetrics, 23e > Chapter 17NORMAL LABOR AND DELIVERY. 2. General Objective Present the normal process of labor and delivery. 3. Specific objectives 1. present Mechanisms of Labor 2. present the difference of Fetal Lie, Presentation, Attitude, and Position 3. 4 Normal labour and delivery ppt. Basic Anatomy, basic physiology, stages of labour and management of each stage. How to use a partogram and the relations of this to Friedman's curve. Usually only know after the delivery, near impossible to predict before. But can clue us into high risk or low risk patients

This is a case study about Mrs. RR a 17 year-old, G1P2 (0102) woman in Normal Spontaneous Delivery, from San Antonio Guagua Pampanga. She was admitted at Jose B. Lingad Memorial General Hospital last April 28, 2014, at 7;45 am because of the pain on her lower abdomen Ungot, Tarlac City Philippines 2300 Level 1 accredited by AACCUP A Clinical Case Study Presented to the faculty of the Department of Nursing In Partial Fulfillment Of the requirement of the Subject NCM 101 RLE (OB-Ward) Normal Spontaneous Delivery (Post-Partum) S.Y 2016-2017 May D. Reyes Patricia Ann D. Almosa Sherilyn A. Daysor Kimberly M. A CASE STUDY ON NORMAL. SPONTANEOUS VAGINAL DELIVERY Foundation University COLLEGE OF NURSING Dumaguete City Mission To enhance and promote a climate of excellence relevant to the challenges of the time, where individuals are committed to pursue new knowledge and life. Vision: Foundation University envisions itself as a dynamic, progressive environment that cultivates effective learning. had a spontaneous rupture of membranes at 11:07. She delivered at 14:02 with a placental delivery at 14:04, for a total labor time of 11 hours and 4 minutes. M.V. was given an epidural for pain control. The patient had lactated ringers running at 125ml/hr with 20 units of pitosin. The 8 hour total intake and output balance was a

Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery - SlideShar

Normal delivery spontaneous about study Case. Research paper on disease prediction. Mlk essay examples food insecurity in the philippines essay north west company case study analysis the effect of unemployment essay, super easy persuasive essay topics. Mens rea essay question, introduce author in essay essay on independence in kannada Most of the nearly 4 million births in the United States annually are normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. In the first stage of labor, normal birth outcomes can be improved by encouraging the. Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study iWriteEssays. Order custom written essays, research papers, theses, dissertations and other college assignments from our experienced writers. Submit your instructions to our writer for free using the form below and receive Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study bids from qualified writers within minutes Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study Pdf Considering Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study Pdf those who ask: help me write my essay, we offer tips to support college students during tremendous struggle for high grades and academic success! Get 50% OFF discounts on all tutoring services Heterotopic pregnancy with a combination of a caesarean scar pregnancy and an intrauterine pregnancy is rare and has potentially life-threatening complications. We describe the case of a 27-year-old white woman who had experienced an emergency caesarean delivery at 39 weeks for fetal distress with no postpartum complications. This is a report of the successful expectant management of a.

Normal Vaginal Delivery

Normal Labor & Delivery - SlideShar

Spontaneous vaginal delivery at term has long been considered the preferred outcome for pregnancy. Because of the perceived health, economic, and societal benefits derived from vaginal deliveries. Of Case study normal delivery spontaneous. Mcdonalds case study strategic management uncle essay in marathi writing an introduction to research paper examples of compare and contrast essay for middle school. Should students wear school uniforms opinion essay macbeth feminism essay . School life essay questions, how to write my research papers Case Study: A 34-Year-Old Woman in Her Second Pregnancy at 24 Weeks Gestation. Steven G. Gabbe, MD. Presentation. A 34-year-old Hispanic-American woman who is in her second pregnancy and has had one live birth and no abortions is seen for prenatal care at 24 weeks gestation. Her weight is 220 lb, and her blood pressure is 130/80 mmHg

Normal labour and delivery ppt - SlideShar

A CASE STUDY ON NORMAL SPONTANEOUS VAGINAL DELIVERY Foundation University COLLEGE OF NURSING Dumaguete City Mission To enhance and promote a climate of excellence relevant to the challenges of the time, where individuals are committed to pursue new knowledge and life NORMAL SPONTANEOUS DELIVERY (Case Study) Presented By: Payra, Divina May L. (Head Nursing) Gallardo, Khristine Bernadette Reyes, Deane Carmina C. San Pedro, Kimberly Tajorda, JandariaTarah Mae Villamia, Lyka C. NEUST SN'14 I. Introduction II. Objectives III. Client's Profile IV. History V. Activities of Daily Living VI. Physical Assessment VII The patient is a 60-year-old white female presenting to the emergency department with acute onset shortness of breath. Symptoms began approximately 2 days before and had progressively worsened with no associated, aggravating, or relieving factors noted. She had similar symptoms approximately 1 year ago with an acute, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation requiring.

Normal Newborn UNFOLDING Reasoning Case Study History of Present Problem One hour after Delivery: Anne is a 17-year-old, gravida 1 para 1 who is 39 weeks gestation. She recently experienced a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without the use of pain medications or an epidural Spontaneous delivery case study. Thesis statement declaration of independence. A CASE STUDY ON NORMAL. SPONTANEOUS VAGINAL DELIVERY Foundation University COLLEGE OF NURSING Dumaguete City Mission To enhance and promote a climate of excellence relevant to the challenges of the time, where individuals are committed to pursue new knowledge and life

A 17 years old, G1P2(1002) Women in Normal Spontaneous

Even when there is no Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study one around Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study to help you, there is a way out. Search for it on the Web, Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study as there are plenty of websites that offer online homework help ASSIGNMENT #1: PPH CASE STUDY. PART 1. Emily is a 32 year old woman. She is a G5 P3. She had a spontaneous vaginal birth of a. 4300gm live male 3 hours ago following a precipitous delivery. She received 10u of Oxytocin IM. with the anterior shoulder. She had an intact perineum and felt great after delivery. The baby. went to breast within 30.

Management of Normal Delivery. Many obstetric units now use a combined labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum (LDRP) room, so that the woman, support person, and neonate remain in the same room throughout their stay. Some units use a traditional labor room and separate delivery suite, to which the woman is transferred when delivery is imminent You are Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study given an assignment by your professor that you have to submit by tomorrow morning; but, you already have commitments with your Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study friends for a party tonight and you can back out We endeavor to deliver 100% satisfaction every time you come to us for Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study assistance. The best part is that we have a flexible pricing policy Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study that lets you select an affordable package considering the type of your paper, the number of words, and academic level Following are Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study the benefits we offer our clients: Expert essay writers: Individuals who are expert in their Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study individual fields and know what they are doing. Customer support all-time availability: Our customer support representatives are available 24/7 for your help, be.

A normal diagonal conjugate measures approximately 12.5 cm, with the critical distance being 10 cm. To measure the diagonal conjugate place the tip of the middle finger at the sacral promontory and note the point on the hand that contacts the pubic symphysis ( Figure 131-1 B ) Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study is a professional service. It was a great pleasure to work with you! Other. Place Your Order. Choose file. Price: $ 9.97. 20. Lopez. Friendly customer support. 3. 1799 Completed Works #6 in global rating. I'd kill the guy who invented trigonometry. Can't imagine what would happen to my GPA if it weren't. Physiology of Normal Labor and Delivery. Normal labor Emanuel Friedman in his elegant treatise on labor (1978) stated correctly that the clinical features of uterine contractions namely frequency, intensity, and duration cannot be relied upon as measures of progression in labor nor as indices of normality A spontaneous vaginal delivery is a vaginal delivery that happens on its own, without requiring doctors to use tools to help pull the baby out. This occurs after a pregnant woman goes through labor

342 Answers to Obstetric Case Studies Case 6 B and D. Most cases of face presentation will deliver spontaneously with-out diffi culty, although the trend is toward cesarean delivery. In this case, the patient has arrived in advanced labor, and there may be insuffi cient time to perform a cesarean delivery, even if that were your preference Encounter for full-term uncomplicated delivery. O80 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM O80 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of O80 - other international versions of ICD-10 O80 may differ requested from the woman for herself and baby to be included in the Case Study in line with ESC 1 (NMC, 2007). BACKGROUND The woman was a 28 year old who was parity 1+0, had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a baby girl with only Entonox as pain relief and was now 2nd day postnatal NSVD (Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery) Back to Obstetrical Services When a woman goes into labor without the aid of any labor inducing drugs or methods, and is able to deliver the baby without requiring a doctor's aid through cesarean section, vacuum extraction, or with forceps, this is known as a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (NSVD) For the third delivery, she received epidural anesthesia at the L3-L4 level using an 18-gauge spinal needle, and successful normal spontaneous delivery occurred at 5:30 pm. For anesthesia, fentanyl 1 mL + lidocaine 3 mL + normal saline 4 mL and marcaine 2 mL and marcaine 6 mL + fentanyl 1 mL + normal saline 5 mL were given

(DOC) FINAL OB WARD CASE STUDY

  1. 199313007: English: FTND - Full term norm delivery, SVD - Spont vaginal delivery, Spontaneous vaginal delivery, ND - Normal delivery, Normal delivery (live child), Delivery in a completely normal case, Delivery of fetus, completely normal case, normal delivery (diagnosis), normal delivery, Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery, Normal delivery in normal case, Normal pregnancy &/or delivery.
  2. CASE STUDY #4 BRIEF HISTORY: A 23 year old G1 P0 who is a known cocaine abuser before and during her pregnancy enters the Labor and Delivery Unit with PROM and a moderate amount of vaginal bleeding at 35 weeks gestation
  3. No. This is normal and common. Case study 2. A normal infant weighs 3000 g at birth. By day 4 the infant's weight has dropped to 2850 g. The infant has tongue tie and the mother thinks that this is preventing the infant from sucking well. The policy in the hospital is to keep all normal infants in the nursery where the mothers can visit at.
  4. Hire an essay writer for the best quality essay writing service. If you are tasked to write a college essay, you are not alone. In fact, Case Study Of Eastman Kodak most college students are assigned to write good quality papers in exchange for high marks in class. You are also not alone in discovering that writing this type of paper is really difficult
  5. Case Study: Postpartum Hemorrhage Janelle is a 40-year-old G6P5. She gave birth to a 9-pound healthy male infant via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery 3 hours ago. She has no medical problems. Her pregnancy history was normal. Her labor course was normal, although her membranes were ruptured for 24 hours before delivery. She had no.
  6. After the HIFU treatment, the average time to pregnancy was 5.6 ± 2.7 months. There were 15 cases of full-term normal delivery and 56 cases of caesarean, including three cases of premature caesarean
  7. Name: Score: Grade: Case Study 1 Sammy is a newborn boy at 32 hours of life. His birth weight was 8 pounds. He was born via normal spontaneous vaginal birth at 40 weeks of gestation to a 26-year-old G1. There were no maternal prenatal issues. Labor and delivery were complicated by a prolonged second stage of labor, which eventually progressed.
Nursing Case study nsvd normal spontaneous delivery

Case Study: 29-Year-Old Female with Postpartum Hemorrhage. A 29-year-old female (G1P1) is readmitted two weeks post-vaginal delivery due to increased vaginal bleeding. She reports that the bleeding began on the tenth day after delivery and has increased in severity each subsequent day. The delivery was uncomplicated with minimal blood loss. Case study: Maternity. The care specific to the 1st reactivity period is breastfeeding. If the infant is adapting properly to life outside of the mother's womb, the mother should breastfeed the baby. It is important for the baby to get colostrums from the mother. If the baby does not breastfeed in the initial six hours following birth, he may. Our study did not demonstrate an association between spontaneous premature labor and serum DDE levels. Our results, considered with the results of another case control study on a contemporary population[], would suggest that DDE exposure is not currently a risk factor for prematurity.One obvious explanation for our results is that, as DDE is no longer in widespread use in North America This case demonstrates that normal spontaneous vag- inal delivery without instrumentation or obvious complica- tion can involve sufficient trauma to result in a linear skull fracture. The precise etiology of these fractures requires further study Postpartum hemorrhage is heavy bleeding after the birth of your baby. Losing lots of blood quickly can cause a severe drop in your blood pressure. It may lead to shock and death if not treated. The most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage is when the uterus does not contract enough after delivery

Case study on nsvd Uterus Medicin

  1. Background: Our purpose was to assess benefits and possible disadvantages of water births and to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes with normal vaginal deliveries. Methods: This case-controlled study was carried out between January 2000 and July 2001. A total of 140 women who wanted water births were enrolled into the study. Our analysis was restricted to a sample of women with a.
  2. Case Based Pediatrics Chapter. Chapter III.10. Neonatal Sepsis. Sherry W.H. Loo, MD. March 2002. Return to Table of Contents. This is a 3200 g term newborn female delivered via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery to a 25 year old G1P0 syphilis non-reactive, group B strep (GBS) negative, rubella immune, hepatitis B surface antigen negative.
  3. Results The study group comprised 29 control women who had an uncomplicated term birth, 25 delivered by caesarean section and 4 vaginal deliveries, and 36 women with a spontaneous preterm labour.
  4. Previous preterm delivery due to preterm labor increases risk of future preterm deliveries; if the previous preterm neonate weighed < 1.5 kg, risk of preterm delivery in the next pregnancy is 50%. Women with prior preterm delivery due to preterm labor should be closely monitored at 2-week intervals after 20 weeks
  5. Retroperitoneal hematoma after vaginal delivery is rare but can lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of this condition is challenging due to its complexity and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. To date, studies and case reports regarding retroperitoneal hematoma are few, particularly in low-income countries where risk factors for this condition may be more prevalent and the.

Worldwide, such bleeding is a leading cause of maternal death. 9 NICHD has supported studies to investigate the use of misoprostol to reduce bleeding, especially in resource-poor settings. Delivery may also require a provider's special attention when the pregnancy lasts more than 42 weeks, when the woman had a C-section in a previous pregnancy. Delivery: [normal in a completely normal case] or [spontaneous vaginal], Delivery: [normal in a completely normal case] or [spontaneous vaginal] (disorder), Normal foaling, Parturition normal, Normal Delivery, NSVD, FTND - Full term normal delivery, SVD - Spontaneous vaginal delivery, Delivery normal, delivery; normal, normal; delivery, Normal. Spontaneous abortion is noninduced embryonic or fetal death or passage of products of conception before 20 weeks gestation.Threatened abortion is vaginal bleeding without cervical dilation occurring during this time frame and indicating that spontaneous abortion may occur in a woman with a confirmed viable intrauterine pregnancy. Diagnosis is by clinical criteria and ultrasonography Temporary Erb-Duchenne palsy can occur in the posterior arm after normal labor and spontaneous delivery without shoulder dystocia or traction on the fetal head. Obstet Gynecol . 2005 May;105(5 Pt 2):1210-2. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000141635.94905.21 View Test Prep - Studenet Preparation for PPH Simulation.docx from ARN 120 at Eastern Idaho Technical College. Preparation for Postpartum Hemorrhage Two Hours Following Delivery Case Study for Huma

Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free Case 2: Respiratory Distress You are admitting a newborn infant born at 37 weeks for respiratory distress. Intrapartum course was notable for spontaneous labor, concerns for chorioamnionitis, meconium‐stained amniotic fluid, and cesarean delivery for failure to progress. Infant emerged vigorous but ha classes. Mark was also present for the vaginal delivery of their son Simon who was born 2 years ago. The Certified Nurse Midwife will be attending the delivery though she is not currently on the unit. As the day shift RN leaves for home, Heather plans her evening and thinks: I anticipate a routine delivery within the next few hours routine practice to send placentas for pathological evaluation after a normal spontaneous delivery. This case clearly illustrates the importance of detailed examination of the placenta and its full significance in diagnosing choriocar-cinoma in the mother. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of intraplacental choriocarcinoma.

  1. Labor and Delivery Case Study. Evaluate the strip in terms of normal or unusual findings. How were you able to explain the fetal monitor to the mother? Describe Stage 2 for the delivery in terms of the type of delivery - spontaneous, vacuum extraction, C-section. If an episiotomy was needed
  2. Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study half the job. We'll fill your assignment with vital insight and clear argumentation. Special prices. $11.96 /page. Without a doubt, a dissertation is one of the most important and hard-to-write papers
  3. Labor and Delivery Labor began September 12th, 2010 at 2100 hours. Patient was 2 cm dilated and 100% effaced upon admission. Her membranes were ruptured at 2200 hours and contained thick meconium. An intrauterine catheter and fetal scalp monitor were placed. An epidural, Pitocin, and an amnioinfusion were started. Baby was in a vertex position at -3 station
  4. NORMAL LABOR AND. DELIVERY Mrs.Mahdia Samaha Kony Definition Labor is the process by which contractions of the gravid uterus expel the fetus. A term pregnancy delivers between 37 and 42 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP). Preterm labor is that occurring before 37 weeks of gestational age. Postdate pregnancy occurs after 42 weeks gestation and requires careful monitoring
  5. (10 points) Case Study #3 Gina is a 21-year-old G3P3 being seen at 6 weeks postpartum after an uncomplicated normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (NSVD). She has no medical problems. She is coping well with three children but states she definitely wants no more right now. She is breast-feeding her infant and has had no menses since delivery. 1
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NSVD Case Study StudyHippo

Pushing & birth of the baby. Delivering the placenta. 1. Labour and effacement of the cervix. This is the first stage of the normal delivery process and of labour. For the baby to be born, the cervix needs to become malleable, soften and stretch so that the baby can be delivered. This first stage can last for up to 13 hours for a woman who is. Nursing Care Plan Of Normal Spontaneous Delivery. Nursing Care Delivery Patient Centered Care and Team Nursing Brittany Saum Pima Medical Institute Jim Follbaum, RN, MSN/Edu 17th of May 2012 Care Delivery Nursing is ongoing and lifelong, for the nurse and the patient. It is not limited to the time spent in the hospital, but follows the nurse and patient for life

Normal Spontaneous Delivery Case Study Pd

She is at 39 weeks' gestation. José, her husband, has accompanied her to the unit. Two years ago, she had a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery after an 18-hour labor for a baby girl, Sonya, who weighed 7 lb, 3 oz. Margarite's cervix is now 4 cm/80%/ station, and the fetal position is left occiput anterior. Prenatal Labs: Blood type O+. FATHER SATURNINO URIOS UNIVERSITY. Butuan City Nursing Program. A CASE STUDY ON NORMAL SPONTANEOUS VAGINAL DELIVERY. BUTUAN MEDICAL CENTER (Ob-Nursery Ward) June 13, 2008 - July 12, 2008 In partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the Subject NCM 101. Submitted by: Florence Phil H. Amoroso BSN - III Submitted to: Mr. Paul Ritchie Pelos, RN Clinical Instructor INTRODUCTIO Case Study: High Risk Postpartum Janelle is a 40-year-old G6 P5. She gave birth to a healthy 9-pound male infant via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery 3 hours ago. She has no medical problems. Her pregnancy history was normal. Her labor course was normal although her membranes were ruptured for 24 hours before delivery. She had no lacerations at delivery Case study 1. An infant is delivered by spontaneous vertex delivery at term. Immediately after birth the infant cries well and appears normal. The cord is clamped and cut after the infant is dried. The infant has a lot of vernix

Normal Spontaneous Delivery by Sofia Ballara

The current study examines the various uses of FloSeal Mode of delivery Case scenario MCDA = monochorionic diamniotic, NSD = normal spontaneous delivery, PC = packed cell, PR = per-rectal, TAH = total abdominal hysterectomy, TOS = trial of scar. Up to. A descriptive, retrospective study of 41 cases--34 men (83%) and 7 women (17%)--treated at our hospital for spontaneous pneumomediastinum from January 1990 through June 2006. The mean age of the.

Case Study 1 - Case Study 1 NORMAL SPONTANEOUS VAGINAL

Oxygen Delivery Case Study The chorionic plate sits right above the basal plate.We investigated the therapeutic potential of HBOT as an adjunct to steroids for UC flares requiring hospitalization.The fetus receives oxygen and nutrients due to trophoblasts that are imbedded in the chorionic plate.30343 Obstetrical score G1P0 A0 L L.Request that the obstetrician artificially.600L and is. spontaneous vaginal delivery during the postpartum period is rare and few cases have been described in literature [3,4]. We present such a case to highlight occurrence of this condition in women presenting with pubic pain following normal deliveries with no history of inciting trauma to the pubic symphysis. Case Repor Background . The coexistence of an intrauterine pregnancy and an ectopic pregnancy (heterotopic pregnancy) is an extremely rare, yet major, complication during pregnancy. The early diagnosis of a heterotopic pregnancy is of great importance for fetal viability, maternal safety, and the progression of an uncomplicated intrauterine pregnancy. >Case Presentation</i>

Case study about normal spontaneous deliver

Assessment. Assessment for delivery starts at the second stage of labor, which is the full cervical dilatation until the birth of the baby.This would be a crucial time since the mother would need to deliver her baby at this stage without any troubles and with her strength intact so she could push for a normal vaginal delivery Nursing Case Study Pre Eclampsia SlideShare. Case Study 05 Brands Delmar Cengage Learning. 2018 - nursing case study nsvd normal spontaneous delivery videos of obstetrics normal delivery case studies obstetric case studies for nurses gynecology case studies' 'Two Lives On The Line A Case Study In Obstetric Critical Car Normal Delivery 06/01/2021 Out-of-Hospital Birth new: 04/01/2021 Active vs. Expectant Management in the Third Stage of Labor [Cochrane for Clinicians unusual case of spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in a 33-year-old woman, a day after her third successful vaginal delivery. A 33-year-old pregnant woman, gravid 3, para 3, was referred to our department at 39 gestational week because of rupture of membranes. Despite tocolysis administration, her pregnancy was delivered vagi

On arrival to labor and delivery, the patient denies any headache, visual changes, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain. The heart rate strip is reactive and the toco- dynamometer indicates irregular uterine contractions. The patient's cervix is 3 cm dilated. Her repeat blood 12 f pressure is 160/90 mm Hg Induction of labour (IOL) is the process of starting labour artificially. Whilst most women will go into labour spontaneously by week 42 of gestation, roughly 1 in 5 pregnancies will require an induction. As a general rule, IOL is performed when it thought that the baby will be safer delivered than remaining in utero Klismaphilia—a term coined by Joanne Denko in the reporting of two case studies in the early 1970s ('klisma' is the Greek word for 'enema')—is a very unusual variant of sexual. for analysis: normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, operative delivery (vacuum or forceps) and cesarean section. Maternal demographic data, as well as obstet-rical data from the index deliveries, were collected from the patients' delivery case records and pre-natal charts. Maternal age, parity, tobacco use, epidural