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Burkholderia cepacia antibiotics

Burkholderia cepacia in Healthcare Settings HAI CD

Burkholderia cepacia [burk-hōld-er-ee-uh si-pay-shee-uh] (also called B. cepacia) is the name for a group or complex of bacteria that can be found in soil and water. B. cepacia bacteria are often resistant to common antibiotics. Populations susceptible to B. cepacia infection B. cepacia poses little medical risk to healthy people Novel antibiotic combinations proposed for treatment of Burkholderia cepacia complex infections. El-Halfawy OM (1) (2), Naguib MM (3) (4), Valvano MA (1) (3) B cepacia is often susceptible to trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), cefepime, meropenem, minocycline, and tigecycline and has varying susceptibility to fluoroquinolones Burkholderia cepacia is characterized by a resistance to many antibiotics. Naturally, there is a resistance to aminoglycosides and polymyxins. In addition, there is usually a resistance to many beta-lactam agents that is based on the production of chromosomally-encoded beta-lactamases or altered penicillin binding proteins Multi-species complex of bacteria, B. cepacia complex (Bcc) with species: B. cepacia, B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, B. stablis, B. vietnamiensis, B. dolosa, B. ambifaria, B. lata, B. pyrrocinia. Known to produce secondary metabolites with antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Biosynthesis of antibiotics is controlled by quorum sensing, a global regulatory system that coordinates bacteria.

Burkholderia cepacia (pronounced Burk-HOLD-er-ia Sa-PAY-shah) was known as Pseudomonas cepacia prior to 1992. Walter H. Burkholder, while teaching at Cornell University in 1947, identified the. Effective strategies to manage Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are lacking. We tested combinations of clinically available antibiotics and show that moxifloxacin-ceftazidime could inhibit 16 Bcc clinical isolates at physiologically achievable concentrations

B. cepacia infections can be treated with antibiotics. Laboratory testing can determine which antibiotics are effective for treatment. Some B. cepacia bacteria have become resistant to certain antibiotics and can be difficult to treat. In such cases, the antibiotic used to treat illness may need to be changed or a patient may need to take antibiotics for a longer period Burkholderia Cepacia: Treatment Infections caused by bacteria can usually be treated with antibiotics which kill the bacteria. However, the B. cepacia bacteria is resistant to many antibiotics...

Novel antibiotic combinations proposed for treatment of

Burkholderia cepacia Medication: Antibiotic

Discovered in 1949 as the bacterium that causes onions to rot, Burkholderia cepacia can be very dangerous to humans in the worst cases. While it mostly responds well to treatment with a combination of antibiotics, it has been shown to have high levels of resistance to several types of antibiotics and is able to survive in extreme conditions The Cochrane Library appears to be unavailable to you at the moment. This could be due to maintenance activity or an unexpected issue. Please contact Customer Support for assistance

Burkholderia (previously known as Pseudomonas) cepacia, a nutritionally versatile, gram-negative organism, was first described in 1949 by Walter Burkholder of Cornell University, as the phytopathogen responsible for a bacterial rot of onions ().Ironically, B. cepacia is now being considered by agricultural microbiologists as an agent to promote crop growth Burkholderia Cepacia in Pharmaceutical Industries 3/3 Copright: 1 li example of this problem is the recall of Metaproterenol Sulfate Inhalation Solution. The USP monograph requires no microbial testing for this product. The agency classified this as a Class I recall because the product was contaminated with Burkholderia Cepacia Our results confirm the innate resistance of B. cepacia complex organisms to six first-line antibiotics used to treat infected cystic fibrosis patients. All antibiotics showed similar bacteriostatic activities against exponentially growing B. cepacia complex planktonic cells and freshly adhered sessile cells (4 h)

Twenty strains of Burkholderia cepacia, isolated principally from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients, were tested for their susceptibility to eight antibiotics with a modified Kirby-Bauer Disc diffusion technique. All strains exhibited multiple but not identical patterns of antibiotic resistance. The sensitivit Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) in combination with antibiotics for treatment of Burkholderia cepacia complex infection. Cassidy CM(1), Donnelly RF, Elborn JS, Magee ND, Tunney MM. Author information: (1)CF and Airways Microbiology Research Group, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species are important opportunistic pathogens with intrinsic antibiotic resistance. They are also well known as contaminants of disinfectants, yet their biocide susceptibility has not been studied in detail. We investigated Bcc biocide susceptibility and correlated it to their taxonomy, antibiotic susceptibility and ability to form biofilms Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance The organism is usually cultured in Burkholderia cepacia agar (BC agar), which contains crystal violet and bile salts to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive cocci, and ticarcillin and polymyxin B to inhibit the growth of other Gram-negative bacilli

Burkholderia Cepaci

  1. Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria are resistant to many common antibiotics and able to acquire resistance against many more. Following patient segregation in cystic fibrosis medical care, the more virulent epidemic strains are not as frequent, and new infections are more likely to be with less virulent environmentally‐acquired strains
  2. Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital..
  3. Whereas Burkholderia infections are recognized to impair prognosis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, there is no recommendation to date for early eradication therapy. The aim of our study was to analyse the current management of initial colonisations with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) or B. gladioli in French CF Centres and its impact on bacterial clearance and clinical outcome
Frontiers | Fighting Pathogenic Bacteria on Two FrontsPseudomonas and Nonfermenters - online presentation

Sten. maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia are intrinsically resistant to many of the antimicrobial agents used for infection with Gram-negative organisms, including the aminoglycosides and cephalosporins, and often acquire further resistance to co-trimoxazole and fluoroquinolones Antibiotic susceptibility of Burkholderia cepacia complex in clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients Margaux Herpol1, Fedoua Echahidi2, Charlotte Peeters3, Ingrid Wybo*4, Peter Vandamme5, Denis Pierard6 1Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Vub), Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Uz Brussel), Department Microbiolog Burkholderia cepacia (pronounced Burk-HOLD-er-ia Sa-PAY-shah) was known as Pseudomonas cepacia prior to 1992. Walter H. Burkholder, while teaching at Cornell University in 1947, identified the. Background. Burkholderia cepacia, an aerobic gram-negative bacillus, is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital ward.It poses little risk of infection to healthy people; however it is a known important opportunistic pathogen causing morbidity and mortality due to its intrinsic resistance to most of the antibiotics in hospitalized patients Burkholderia cepacia bacteria are often resistant to common antibiotics. Burkholderia cepacia poses little medical risk to healthy people; however, it is a known cause of infections in hospitalized patients. People with certain health conditions, such as sickle cell disease,.

This study determined the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm cultures of Burkholderia cepacia complex organisms, a group of highly problematic pathogens associated with cystic fibrosis patients. The biofilm inhibitory concentrations were considerably higher than the corresponding minimum inhibitory concentrations for meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. However, tobramycin. Dear Editor, We isolated Burkholderia cepacia from blood and sputum samples of cancer patients having febrile neutropenia.B.cepacia was identified using Gram-negative GN REF 21341 identification card in automated VITEK ® 2 Compact (C) system (Biomeriux, North Carolina/USA). Antibiotic susceptibility results were expressed as susceptible, intermediate or resistant according to the criteria of. antiseptics and antibiotics.2 Since the mid-1980's, B. cepacia complex has been recognized as an important pathogen affecting patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).3,4 Colonization and pulmonary infection with this organism have been associated with a rapid decline in pulmonary function and poor patient prognosis Extremophiles are organisms that live in extreme environments, as opposed to organisms that live in moderate (mesophilic) environments. This category includes acidophiles, thermophiles, osmophiles, halophiles, oligotrophs, and others. Mesophiles = 0, Extremophile = 1. Gram-stain. Negative = 0, Positive = 1, Indeterminate = 2

The type species is Burkholderia cepacia sensu stricto. At present the Burkholderia cepacia complex is composed of 21 validated species that are very difficult to differentiate from one another using usual phenotypic and molecular criteria (Table 1). 1.2 Habitats. These bacteria are some of the most versatile Gram-negative bacteria Burkholderia cepacia is a plant phytogen and is known as a hardy and versatile organism. Over the past two decades it has emerged as a pathogen in the cystic fibrosis (CF) community, with devastating effects. Pulmonary colonisation can lead to an accelerated decline in lung function. In some cases, it causes a rapid and progressive pneumonic illness termed cepacia syndrome, which is.

PPT - Nonfermenters PowerPoint Presentation - ID:204895

The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life. First Documented: 1949 Illness Caused: Pneumonia Antibiotic Resistance: Low Virulence: Worrying Discovered in 1949 as the bacterium that causes onions to rot, Burkholderia cepacia can be very dangerous to humans in the worst cases.While it mostly responds well to treatment with a combination of antibiotics, it has been shown to have high levels of resistance to several types of antibiotics and. Synergistic Activities of Macrolide Antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Isolated from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Authors: Lisa Saiman [email protected], Yunhua Chen, Pablo San Gabriel, and Charles Knirsch Chronic infection of the respiratory tract by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Burkholderia cepacia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adult patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Conventional antibiotic susceptibility testing examines the efficacy of single antibiotics against planktonically grown cultures of bacteria under aerobic conditions

Burkholderia cepacia complex Johns Hopkins ABX Guid

Hand soaps linked to Burkholderia Cepacia infections, sold at Walmart and other retailers, were voluntarily recalled over health concerns. B. Cepacia is the name given for at least 20 different species of bacteria that are often antibiotic-resistant. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health threats of modern times B. cepacia complex is a group of bacteria often found in water or soil. This group of bacteria is often resistant to commonly used antibiotic drugs. They are not dangerous for most healthy people but can pose a significant risk for people with CF. 1. The B. cepacia complex is made up of about 18 different types, or species, of bacteria B. cepacia, typically associated with respiratory infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory diseases, can also be transmitted by contaminated medications and devices. B. cepacia is frequently resistant to many common antibiotics and decisions on the treatment should be made by using antibiotic susceptibility testing The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed

Most Burkholderia cepacia strains are resistant to many, or all, of the antibacterial agents commonly used in cystic fibrosis (CF), and selection of appropriate antibiotics for treatment of pulmonary exacerbations is therefore difficult. We developed a technique for rapid in vitro testing of multiple antibiotic combinations for B. cepacia isolates. . For each of 119 multi-drug-resistant. Burkholderia cepacia is a member of a group of more than 20 closely related species in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC).BCC strains are some of the most versatile Gram-negative bacteria with a wide environmental distribution in soil, plants, and water Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are an important cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intrinsic resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, is frequently observed in Bcc strains. Resistance to β-lactams is most commonly mediated by efflux pumps, alterations in penicillin.

Review question. We reviewed the evidence for antibiotic treatment to cure early infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis and prevent it becoming permanent.. Background. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease and people who have this disease produce large amounts of thick mucus which is difficult to clear A bacterial strain identified as Burkholderia cepacia NB-1 was isolated from water ponds in the botanical garden in Tübingen, Germany, and was found to produce a broad spectrum phenylpyrrole antimicrobial substance active against filamentous fungi, yeasts and Gram-positive bacteria. In batch culture containing glycerol and L-glutamic acid, the isolate NB-1 produced the antibiotic optimally. Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments.B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital (eg, irrigation solutions, intravenous fluids).B cepacia rarely causes infection in healthy hosts. Based on phenotypic and genotypic analyses, B cepacia is divided into 9 genomovars that constitute. Molecular Detection of Burkholderia cepacia and Comparative Study Between Medical Plant and Antibiotics against Bacteria Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis June 2021 Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine.

Burkholderia cepacia: This Decision Is Overdu

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. One proposed alternative treatment is phage therapy, the therapeutic application. Fact Sheet: Burkholderia cepacia Download PDF here Description: Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) also known as B.cepacia complex (BCC) is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. It is named after the American microbiologist, William Burkholder, who described the organism in 1950 as the cause of onion rot A particularly sinister infection is caused by a group of microbes called Burkholderia cepacia. These microorganisms are difficult to eradicate, and they often become resistant to antibiotics. Infection with these organisms is a particular concern for people who have suppressed immunity for example, people with cystic fibrosis that have had. Consequently, treatment for infections caused by B. cepacia will most often require the usage of a number of different varieties of antibiotics used at the identical moment. Symptoms connected with infections caused by B. cepacia are extremely much like the signs of different diseases of the lungs like pneumonia and cystic fibrosis

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative rod that is 1.6-3.2 m m in length. It was discovered in 1949 by Walter Burkholder at Cornell University in rotting onions.B. cepacia is a strict aerobe and a chemoorganotroph with an optimum temperature of 30 to 35 degrees Celsius. It is found in soil, water and on plants and can survive longer in wet environments then in dry ones Objectives: The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species are important opportunistic pathogens with intrinsic antibiotic resistance. They are also well known as contaminants of disinfectants.

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative bacillus that is most commonly associated with pneumonia in the immunocompromised patients. The most common organisms associated with pancreatic infections are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., and Enterococcus spp. We report a case of a 45-year-old gentleman with recent acute pancreatitis who presented with hypoglycemia. Burkholderia cepacia complex is a ubiquitous organism with a high virulence potential. It is found most commonly in moist environments. Hospital outbreaks have been reported from diverse sources such as contaminated faucets, nebulizers, disinfectant solutions, multidose antibiotic vials, tap water, bottled water, nasal sprays, and ultrasound gels The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacilli that comprises at least nine species 1.Originally identified as a plant pathogen in the 1950s, when it.

Burkholderia cepacia: Unknown. Binding of mucin from patients with cystic fibrosis may be involved. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics complicates therapy and may promote organism survival in hospital: Nonpathogenic to healthy human hosts; able to colonize and cause life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis or. Intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. P. aeruginosa TSI reaction. K/NC (does not ferment glucose) 80% are lysine decarboxylase positive. Burkholderia cepacia. Forms green colonies on chocolate agar. Burkholderia cepacia. Of the aerobic, non-fermentor, GNR, this is a common contaminant of medical devices. Burkholderia cepacia. Cause of melioidosis Human infections caused by the opportunist pathogens Burkholderia cepacia complex and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are of particular concern due to their severity, their multiple antibiotic resistance, and the limited eradication efficiency of the current available treatments. New therapeutic options have been pursued, being vaccination strategies to prevent or limit these infections as a rational.

Introduction. Burkholderia cenocepacia is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), a group of 17 closely related and phenotypically similar species .These bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that can cause severe lung infections in immunocompromised people, including cystic fibrosis (CF) patients .The prevalence and outcome of infections appear to be species dependent and. Classification of Burkholderia cepacia complex Basic taxonomy. Walter H. Burkholder described a phytopathogenic bacterium causing onion rot in New York State in the mid-1940s and named the species 'cepacia' [].This was initially known as Pseudomonas cepacia, later in 1992 included in the Betaproteobacteria class, with Burkholderiales order and Burkholderiaceae family as Burkholderia.

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of closely related bacterial species that emerged in the 1980s as the etiological agents of severe and often lethal respiratory infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. After several outbreaks in CF centers in Europe and North America, segregation measures were introduced to avoid patient-to-patient transmission T1 - Characterization of growth and antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia Cepacia complex organisms. AU - Smith, Ellie. AU - Reed, Daniel . AU - Champlin, Franklin. PY - 2020/8/23. Y1 - 2020/8/23. N2 - Introduction: Isolates are opportunistic pathogens within the Burkholderia cepacia Complex (Bcc) Burkholderia cepacia: (B. cepacia, for short.) A group of bacteria found in soil and water that are often resistant to common antibiotics. B. cepacia poses little medical risk to healthy people. However, people who have certain health problems such as a weakened immune systems or chronic lung disease, particularly cystic fibrosis (CF), are more. The effect of recombinant human lactoferrin on growth and the antibiotic susceptibility of the cystic fibrosis pathogen Burkholderia cepacia complex when cultured planktonically or as biofilms. Emma M Caraher, Kiranmai Gumulapurapu, Clifford C Taggart, Philip Murphy, Siobhán McClean, Máire Callaghan Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2007.

These include Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia gladioli, and B. mallei. B. cepacia and B. pseudom-allei are human pathogens, whereas B. gladioli and B. mallei are not. Burkholderia cepacia. B. cepacia, previously known as Pseudomonas cepacia, was firstdescribed by Walter Burkholder in 1949. It is the causative agent. Burkholderia cepacia is an intracellular parasite with poorly defined pathogenicity, which seems to determine the activation of TNF-mediated inflammation or bacteremia, causing, in rare cases, sepsis-like manifestations; infection with this pathogen is associated with a high rate of in-hospital mortality (33%) . The bacillus is an opportunistic. Background. Gram-negative bacteria causing infection that occurs in patients who are immune suppressed or those with chronic lung disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis) Often resistant to multiple antibiotics Burkholderia multivorans is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex whose members are inherently resistant to many antibiotics and can cause chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. A possible treatment for chronic infections arises from the existence of collateral sensitivity (CS)—acquired resistance to a treatment antibiotic results in a decreased resistance to a. Intravenously administered antibiotic therapy, often in com-bination, has been successful. In conclusion we report a case of sepsis associated with B. cepacia without any identifiable source of infection. It is our belief that this is the first reported case. The occurrence of B. cepacia sepsis in a dialysis-dependent patient with n

Burkholderia Cepacia: Symptoms & Treatment Study

Burkholderia cepacia bacteria are innately resistant to many common antibiotics and able to acquire resistance against many more. Since strict patient segregation was introduced to cystic fibrosis medical care, the incidence of the more virulent epidemic strains has fallen, and new infections are more likely to be with environmentally-acquired. Burkholderia cepacia strains are resistant to many, or all, of the antibacterial agents commonly used in cystic fibrosis (CF), and selec-tion of appropriate antibiotics for treatment of pulmonary exacerba-tions is therefore difficult. We developed a technique for rapid in vitro testing of multiple antibiotic combinations for B. cepacia iso-lates The resistance to antibiotics of Burkholderia cepacia complex poses danger for cystic fibrosis patients Bcc is typically resistant to antibiotics and has numerous virulent genetic determinants which make it extremely difficult to treat. An essential component of improved management and prevention of infections is gaining a better understanding. These costs are due to prolonged and/or more expensive treatments, extended hospital stays and the like. (CDC, 2013) Rao (2017) identities ten clinical organisms of significant concern relative to antibiotic resistance. Burkholderia cepacia is identified as the second organism on his list, following Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main interest in the presence of pseudomonads of any type (including Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) - the former Pseudomonas cepacia) is that they are strictly water-borne organisms (deionized water) which is used as the main ingredient in all of the medicaments listed in this report.Gram negative bacilli of this type thrive heartily in deionized water because of the sparse.

Antibiotic Use of Ubonodin and its Derivatives Against Burkholderia Infections . Docket# 20-3606 . Researchers at Princeton University have developed a novel compound that potently kills members of the Burkholderia genus, a notorious family of bacteria that includes multiple human and plant pathogens Burkholderia cepacia: an important pathogen of pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Due to their antibiotic resistance and the high mortality rate from their associated diseases Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are considered to be potential biological warfare agents, targeting livestock and humans In recent times, increased attention has been given to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, especially in scenarios where the bacterial infectious agent of interest is highly antibiotic resistant. In this regard, phage therapy is especially applicable to infections caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) since members of the BCC are antibiotic pan-resistant Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Burkholderia cepacia complex The organism B. cepacia complex (BCC) are a group of closely‐related species that are ubiquitous in nature and found particularly in soil and water.1‐4 Clinically they are predominantly associated with chronic pulmonary infection in patients with cystic fibrosis, but may also cause infections in patients wit Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are significant pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients and are resistant to a plethora of antibiotics. In this context microorganisms from Antarctica are interesting since they produce antimicrobial compounds inhibiting the growth of other bacteria

Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia specie

Burkholderia cepacia Complex in Cystic Fibrosis. Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 17 Gram-negative β-proteobacteria that are phenotypically related but genetically discrete (Mahenthiralingam et al., 2005; Vanlaere et al., 2008, 2009).This complex of bacteria is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics and has a widespread distribution in nature existing in soil. Burkholderia cepacia Complex Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): Antibiotics Stimulate Lytic Phage Activity Fatima Kamal, Jonathan J. Dennis.

Melioidosis[Full text] Pan-drug-resistant and biofilm-producingFrontiers | The Promise of Bacteriophage Therapy forKidney and Prostatic Abscesses Secondary to BurkholderiaMelioidosis: A case report Barman P, Sidhwa H, ShirkhandeCan you cure Strep Throat with Antibiotics? – Canadian

Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of Gram-negative, Various traits distinguish BCC from other CF pathogens, such as its inherent resistance to many antibiotics, high transmissibility, and association with greater virulence. Because of these factors, management of B. cepacia complex patients is difficult Antibiotic susceptibility • All strains of B. cepacia are sensitive to sulfonamides and novobiocin. • Both B. cepacia and B.gladioli are resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics (ticarcillin by itself or mixed with clavulanic acid; cefsulodin, imipenem, aminoglycosides, colistin, and fosfomycin) During 2012, an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex spread throughout the intensive care unit of a German hospital. The illness was traced to contaminated alcohol-free mouthwash. Though this event does not mark the first time B. cepacia complex was recovered from a consumer product, it does make a solid case for continued monitoring of this strain in pharmaceutical and personal case. special cells in the immune system. However, in people with CF the B.cepacia bacteria seem to be able to survive inside these immune cells. Sources of Burkholderia cepacia complex It is a bacterium resistant to many antibiotics that can be found in: • The natural environment, most commonly soils and water • Hospital setting • The lungs of.